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Species: Vole

Protection Level
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Federally Protected Yes
State Protected Yes
VA Nuisance Species No

 




Identification
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Rock Vole
Microtus chrotorrhinus
Federally Endangered

Photos

 

 

county distribution map for Microtus chrotorrhinus

Common Pine Vole
Microtus pinetorum pinetorum

Photos

 

 

county distribution map for Microtus pinetorum pinetorum

Common Gapper’s Red-backed Vole
Clethrionomys gapperi gapperi

Photos

 

county distribution map for Clethrionomys gapperi gapperi

 

Carolina Gapper’s Red-backed
Clethrionomys gapperi carolinensis

Photos

 

county distribution map for Clethrionomys gapperi carolinensis

 

Coastal Gapper’s Red-backed
Clethrionomys gapperi maurus

Photos

 

county distribution map for Clethrionomys gapperi maurus

 

 

Pine Vole
Microtus pinetorum scalopsoides

Photos

 

 

county distribution map for Microtus pinetorum scalopsoides

Woodland Vole
Microtus pinetorum carbonarius

Photos

  county distribution map for Microtus pinetorum carbonarius 

Meadow Vole
Microtus pennsylvanicus pennsylvanicus

Photos

  county distribution map for Microtus pennsylvanicus pennsylvanicus
Dark Meadow Vole
Microtus pennsylvanicus nigrans

 
county distribution map for Microtus pennsylvanicus nigrans



Legal
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The vole is classified as a non-game protected species. Virginia code allows for the taking of a species found committing or about to commit depredation upon ornamental or shade trees, agricultural crops, wildlife, livestock or other property or when concentrated in numbers and manners as to constitute a health hazard or other nuisance 29.1-100. The nuisance classification does not pertain to threatened or endangered species, animals classified as game or fur-bearing animals, and those species protected by state or federal law. All species of vole except the rock vole are capable of being classified as a nuisance by Virginia landowners. The water shrew is a federally threatened species and therefore can not be taken at any time. As with all wildlife non-lethal control measures should be exhausted before lethal measures are used.

In Virginia it is illegal to

  • set a trap where it would be likely to injure persons, dogs, stock or fowl 29.1-521,
  • not visit all traps once each day and remove all animals caught 29.1-521,
  • transport, release, or relocate a vole anywhere other than the property it was caught on 4VAC15-30-50, and
  • poison any animal (including voles) other than rats and mice on your property 4VAC15-40-50.

In Virginia it is legal to

  • classify a vole (except rock vole, it is federally protected) as a nuisance if it is committing or about to commit depredation upon ornamental or shade trees, agricultural crops, wildlife, livestock or other property or when concentrated in numbers and manners as to constitute a health hazard or other nuisance therefore allowing for the taking of the animal. §29.1-100


Management Options
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Other Sources

Best practices for nuisance wildlife control operators in New York State

Dealing with Nuisance Wildlife, Maryland Cooperative Extension (need to scroll to appropriate species)

Prevention and Control of Wildlife Damage- 1994

Reducing Vole Damage to Plants, Maryland Cooperative Extension

Vole Control and Management Information, Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management

Voles in Commercial Orchards and Ornamental Nurseries, North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service

Voles in Horticultural Plantings, North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service

 

Life History
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Life History information can be found at the Virginia Fish and Wildlife Information Service Web page.

Rock Vole

Common Gapper’s Red-backed Vole

Carolina Gapper’s Red-backed Vole

Coastal Gapper’s Red-backed Vole

Common Pine Vole

Pine Vole

Woodland Vole

Meadow Vole

Dark Meadow Vole

 

Disease
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The Center is not aware of any diseases that are transferable from vole to humans. A thorough hand washing is recommended after coming into contact with any wild animal.